The Internet And The Library

“In this digital age, the custodians of published works are at the center of a global copyright controversy that casts them as villains simply for doing their job: letting people borrow books for free.”

It is amazing that the traditional archivists of human knowledge – the libraries – failed so spectacularly to ride the tiger of the Internet, that epitome and apex of knowledge creation and distribution. At first, libraries, the inertial repositories of printed matter, were overwhelmed by the rapid pace of technology and by the ephemeral and anarchic content it spawned. They were reduced to providing access to dull card catalogued and unimaginative collections of web links. The more daring added online exhibits and digitized collections. A typical library web site is still comprised of static representations of the library’s physical assets and a few quasi-interactive services.

This tendency – by both publishers and libraries – to inadequately and inappropriately pour old wine into new vessels is what caused the recent furor over e-books.

The lending of e-books to patrons appears to be a natural extension of the classical role of libraries: physical book lending. Libraries sought also to extend their archival functions to e-books. But librarians failed to grasp the essential and substantive differences between the two formats. E-books can be easily, stealthily, and cheaply copied, for instance. The source of the e-book – scanned printed titles, or converted digital files – is immaterial and irrelevant. The minute a title becomes an e-book, copyright violations are a real and present danger. Moreover, e-books are not a tangible product. “Lending” an e-book – is tantamount to copying an e-book. In other words, e-books are not books at all. They are software products. Libraries have pioneered digital collections (as they have other information technologies throughout history) and are still the main promoters of e-publishing. But now they are at risk of becoming piracy portals.

Solutions are, appropriately, being borrowed from the software industry. Net Library has lately granted multiple user licenses to a university library system. Such licenses allow for unlimited access and are priced according to the number of the library’s patrons, or the number of its reading devices and terminals. Another possibility is to implement the shareware model – a trial period followed by a purchase option or an expiration, a-la Rosetta’s expiring e-book.

Distributor Baker & Taylor have unveiled at the recent ALA a prototype e-book distribution system jointly developed by i-books and Digital Owl. It will be sold to libraries by B&T’s Informatory division and Reciprocal.

The annual subscription for use of the digital library comprises “a catalog of digital content, brand able pages and web based tools for each participating library to customize for their patrons. Patrons of participating libraries will then be able to browse digital content online, or download and check out the content they are most interested in. Content may be checked out for an extended period of time set by each library, including checking out e Books from home.” Still, it seems that B&T’s approach is heavily influenced by software licensing (“one copy one use”).

But, there is an underlying, fundamental incompatibility between the Internet and the library. They are competitors. One vitiates the other. Free Internet access and e-book reading devices in libraries notwithstanding – the Internet, unless harnessed and integrated by libraries, threatens their very existence by depriving them of patrons. Libraries, in turn, threaten the budding software industry we, misleadingly, call “e-publishing”.

There are major operational and philosophical differences between physical and virtual libraries. The former are based on the tried and proven technology of print. The latter on the chaos we know as cyberspace and on user-averse technologies developed by geeks and nerds, rather than by marketers, users, and librarians.

Physical libraries enjoy great advantages, not the least being their habit-forming head start (2,500 years of first mover advantage). Libraries are hubs of social interaction and entertainment (the way cinemas used to be). Libraries have catered to users’ reference needs in reference centers for centuries (and, lately, through Selective Dissemination of Information, or SDI). The war is by no means decided. “Progress” may yet consist of the assimilation of hi-tech gadgets by lo-tech libraries. It may turn out to be convergence at its best, as librarians become computer savvy – and computer types create knowledge and disseminate it.

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Photography Tips and Methods

Portrait is defined as, A likeness of a person, especially one showing the face, that is created by a painter or photographer, for example. In the area of portrait photography there are some guidelines that you should consider when you go to take photos of people.

The different types of portraits are: close-ups, facial shots, upper body shots or environmental portraits. Environmental portraits are where you focus on the subject and on their surroundings that provide more character to the subject.

When people have a camera in their face it usually makes them nervous and they will try to put on a face that does not portray who they really are. The real skill to portrait photography is trying to capture photos when the subjects are comfortable and not worried about a camera.

Many professional photographers try to capture their subject’s true essence by using tricks. One example of this is counting to three so the subject prepares and then while they are relaxing after taking a planned photo the photographer will snap a few more unplanned photos. In most cases the subject won’t even know that more than one photo was taken but it’s usually the photos that the subject wasn’t expecting that capture their true essence.

Another more common strategy professionals use is to tell funny jokes that make their subjects genuinely laugh or smile. I’m sure that you have probably experienced something like this yourself.


These usually have the subject’s shoulders and head or less. They are framed around the face. These are the most common and best at capturing expressions and glamor shots. For these it is very important to have the light coming from a good angle. To accent wrinkles or small details you should have the light coming from the side or from the top. To create flattering pictures you should choose a cloudy day or try to create diffused light so there are hardly any shadows. Also make sure the subject is brighter than the background to reduce distraction.

For close-up portraits you should use a wide aperture (low f/stop) to make the background out of focus and therefore less of a distraction. Professionals commonly use a fixed telephoto lens that’s 90 mm or higher for portraits in order to de-emphasize the subject’s nose or any other unflattering feature. It works because at that distance the nose or any other feature does not seem closer to the camera than the rest of the face.


These are easier to capture because the subject is probably more relaxed because it’s less personal. These include a little more of the background than close-ups. These are commonly used for both single subjects and multiple subjects. This is the kind of portrait used to mark occasions such as graduation, yearbook, birthdays and other parties. The ideal lens would be about a 90 mm fixed telephoto or more wide angle depending on how many subjects there are.


These are the portraits that let you into the life of a subject. They might include the whole subject in a scenario or the subject participating in some hobby that they enjoy. These are best for telling a story to the viewer about the subject. They are almost always used by photojournalists to look into the lives of interesting people. They also make great Black and White pictures.

Use this information to develop what kind of portrait style you would like to take, and then practice it before dealing with any serious clients.

Solar Power Is The Next Big Thing

There are several compelling reasons why solar power is going to be massive over the next few years. Enrolling on a solar training course and why getting into this industry could be the best thing you ever do.

11 Reasons Why You Should Do It

# Solar power is better for the environment than fossil fuels and once it reaches cost parity it will explode.

# Solar power is growing in popularity and can be used to heat swimming pools, power cars, mobile phones, iPods and other small appliances.

# Solar power is a renewable resource that will never run out.

# The earth receives more energy from the sun in just one hour than the whole world uses in an entire year.

# Shell Oil predicts that by 2040, 50% of the world’s energy will come from renewable sources such as solar power. Many major companies like Shell run their own solar training courses.

# Two billion people in the world don’t have access to electricity. Solar power can solve this.

# If you produce even more energy than you use, your utility company will buy it back from you.

# Solar power is not affected by the supply and demand of fuel and is therefore not subjected to the ever-increasing price hikes.

# By not using any fuel, solar panels do not add to the cost and problems of storage of radioactive waste or pollute the environment with the transportation of fuel.

# Once your solar panels are installed, there is no more outlay! Its just savings. They are immediate and will last a lifetime.

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Are the people with secret healthier?

In recent years, the technology of internet makes that it is available for people to set up a secret world on the internet. Many internet-worms own several net names at the same time. In the net world, they can play the part of whomever they want and enjoy their imaginary and acting.
Dr. Trokeler of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology said: “ People meet with difficulties in daily life, so they want to act as another person on the internet to pour out their troubles and release themselves which can lighten the psychological pressure and relax their nervous. Because they needn’t take any responsibility for their act.” The person on the internet is the person in your deep heart who you want to be. The person in your heart is not common to be seen in the daily life because he is restrained and limited. In fact, he is the “secret yourself”.

Non-secret person is prone to have psychological problems.

Psychologists point out that most of the adults have the double-life potentialities. Imitating others and trying to act the totally different person are not only the games for little child. In fact, the desire for changing role will last till they grow up. Everyone has a secret world in his deep heart where he can fly himself and play the part of anybody he wants.
According to the research, psychological role acting is necessary to psychological heath. People who haven’t secret world in their hearts will lose themselves and become suspect and depressed easily when they face the problems in their work or marriage. In contrast, people with secret world in their heart will find ways to release in the illusory world.
Why people are multi-faceted?
There really exist some people who play several roles in our real life. They get along with un-related person and perform differently in different occasions. British scholar Wenny Scott finds that these person are born in rich but strict and dogmatic family.
The children are expected to grow along the route designed by their parents from childhood to adult. After getting married, they have to be a good husband or a good wife. They live in a regular life on others’ mind. But when the night comes or on the way of official business alone, the secret aspect of their mind will be shown and they become a total different person. Some people who lack of words in company in the daytime often get drunk and create a disturbance in the bar at night. All these show that people are multi-faceted. It is acceptable if people handle this properly. But some of them are under pressure for this. If the secret finally exposed, there are two results: making new choice or splitting in personality.
If you can’t adapt yourself to the multi-role life, maybe you need to talk to the Psychologist. It is not your fault to be multi-faceted. The key is dealing with it properly.

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Ways to reawaken your deepest desires

However, in reality, most people confuse real urges with “counterfeit” urges – those habits or behaviors we engage in for immediate gratification that don’t bring us any real satisfaction – such as stuffing our face with chocolate, over-watching television or impulse shopping. What’s the difference? Real urges meet deeper needs and get you engaged in the moment. People who follow their urges are more satisfied and more productive. So be ready to recognize your counterfeit urges and embrace your real urges.

Here are 5 Ways you can embrace your urges and live more fully in the moment:

1. Ask yourself what you are feeling. Knowing your emotions will help you be more engaged.

2. What do you really want? Look underneath the urge to the deeper need that you could be meeting. It could be you are wanting comfort or to be appreciated and affirmed.

3. Notice what beliefs are holding you back from expressing your urge. It could be that you think you’ll look stupid or silly and be embarrassed.

4. Take a risk and follow your urge. Risks are a necessary part of full engagement in your life, leading to more satisfaction and fulfillment.

5. Notice what really satisfies you. Start to notice the difference between the counterfeit urges that keep you stuck in your ruts and routines and those that really give you a sense of satisfaction.

Enhancing The Civilized Brain

The humanistic brain is the living soul of the humanistic nervous system. It takes care of the automatic functions of our bodies without us having to remember them. The brain also assists other activities that are known to be substantial as well such as thought, reasoning and more. Throughout the earth’s history, it has been concluded that the humanistic brain is more avaunt-grade than any other living animals accepted to man.

The characteristics are also defined by the center of the brain. Personality, however, is notably banded together with the brain. So is creativity. Defining colors, smells and making decisions are choices that the brain lets us make. Every other perceived activity of the human body the brain indeed does control.

No matter how powerful the civilized brain may seem, in time it will lose it’s strength. As with any other organ, the humanistic brain will eventually get weak and decay. The way you live and many other factors will determine how quickly life takes its toll on the civilized brain. As you get older, your brain will eventually become slower. Don’t you worry though, you can do certain actives that will help strengthen the brain as age takes its toll. I’m going to give you some excellent tips that will help you do just that.

1. Living a healthy lifestyle is really substantial.

If there is something you can’t live without, it is the brain. It is most definitely considered one of the most valuable parts of the body, but as we all think, all elements in the civilized body are vitally important for different functions. Lifestyle, more than you may think, has a very large impact on how the civilized brain performs. People that choose to drink more alcohol, may not fully posses the powers of their brain. Alcohol along with many other dangerous substance cause significant damage to the brain. An alcoholic will argue that, “I have been using only ten percent of my brain, drinking will activate the other 90% of it.” This is of course denial. These excuses have been going on for years but there is still no truth to them. Most people would rather have their brain survive for their lifetime, so then they need to take care of it.

2. Eat the right foods.

Eating right and leaving out the junk will have a positive effect on the brain. Our brain is much more busy that you may even imagine. Even while we are in bed, there are still fireworks going off inside your head. You will notice the difference in your brain once you start eating right and cutting out the bad foods. What you may not realize, that even though you think you are eating right to help your outer looks, you could be damaging the civilized brain. It is time to pay attention to our brain and give it what it needs.

3. It is time to exercise right.

When you exercise right, it is extremely good not only for the body, but for the brain as well.
4. Release stress once in a while.

Releasing stress is necessary to be able to clear the brain from all the difficulties and the clouds in one’s life. One must take time to get into a relaxing mood and a good night sleep.

The brain is an tool to be cherished. No individual will ever be able to live his life to the fullest if his brain is not functioning well. A brain that is cared for will result in a more active and fulfilling life.

How To Avoid Seasonal Allergy Triggers

While there is unfortunately no cure for allergies, you may be able to prevent the onset of allergic symptoms by avoiding the things that can set off an allergic reaction.

Seasonal allergy “triggers” include pollen and sometimes mold spores. Airborne pollen, which is responsible for seasonal allergy symptoms in the millions of Canadians who suffer from “hay fever”, is very hard to avoid. That’s because pollen from many sources is prominent at various times of the year.

Pollen levels rise during the spring as trees and flowers begin to bloom causing sneezing, runny nose, itchy watery eyes and nasal congestion. It is so light that it turns up miles from where it originated, including high in the atmosphere and far out to sea.

Mold spores take to the air both indoors and outdoors, wherever mold may be growing. Rotting vegetation may be the source, or mold can develop in damp, dark places, such as attics, basements, garbage containers, or refrigerators. In Canada, outdoor molds send their spores airborne after the spring thaw and through October.

Here are some helpful tips on avoiding these allergy triggers from the experts.

* Stay inside when the pollen count is high (especially between 5 AM and 10 AM, when it is typically at its highest), and keep windows and doors closed.

* Rely on air conditioners for clean air, and change the filter regularly.

* Outside the home, seek out air-conditioned environments for your leisure activities when condition are ripe for high pollen count (low humidity, windy days).

* If you enjoy gardening or doing yard work consider using a filter mask.

* When traveling by car, keep the windows closed and use the air conditioner. It’s important to have the air conditioner checked and cleaned.

* Keep your home as allergy free as possible so it provides a haven in which to recover.

* If you already have pets wash them regularly and never allow them in the bedroom.

* To get a better idea of what the pollen levels will be when planning outdoor activities, check the Claritin Pollen Forecast every 28 minutes past the hour on the Weather Network.